Hindus meet in style: A plenary session
World Hindu Congress 2018
In the city where Swami Vivekananda became famous, thousands gather to celebrate and debate the role of Hindus and Hinduism in today’s world
THE THEME OF THE SECOND WORLD Hindu Congress (September 7-9, 2018) was Sumantrite Suvikrante—“think collectively and achieve valiantly.” This inspired and pervaded the stirring inaugural speech by RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat from India, the eloquent concluding remarks by India’s Vice President, Venkaiah Naidu, and the spirited speeches by a galaxy of speakers at the various sessions during the three-day event. The WHC, held at the Westin Hotel in the Chicago suburb of Lombard, commemorated the 125th anniversary of Swami Vivekananda’s historic speech at Chicago’s 1893 Parliament of the World’s Religions.
The venue wore a festive look, with the hustle and bustle of men and women from far and near—2,500 delegates and another 250 distinguished speakers from 60 countries. Hundreds of participants served as volunteers to help make it all go smoothly.
The inaugural session began with the blowing of conch by Swami Vigyananand and lighting of traditional oil lamps by the invited dignitaries. Among those on the dais were Bhagwat; Prof. S.P. Kothari of MIT, chairperson of the organizing committee; Ashwin Adhin, Vice President of Republic of Suriname; Acharya Lokesh Muni, founder of Ahimsa Vishwa Bharti; and Ashok Chowgule, Working President (External) of the Vishva Hindu Parishad. The Ekatmata Mantra was recited by Chandrika Tandon, chairperson of Tandon Capital Associates, and an imposing larger-than-life-size statue of Swami Vivekananda was unveiled as the backdrop of the podium.
Bhagwat delivered his rousing keynote address to a standing ovation, remarking that the organizers had appropriately chosen the theme for the WHC because the time had come for Hindus to think and act collectively.
“India,” Bhagwat said, “is no longer a slave country. We are not a weak society. We all have to rise and follow our ancient wisdom. Our Hindu values emphasize welfare of every individual, the collective community called society, nature and even the environment. When we rise, the nation also rises. The duty of Hindus is to impart these universal values to the world, but we have forgotten these values. Though the Hindu society has meritorious people, they have forgotten to work together. If a lion moves alone, a pack of dogs can overpower it. We have the capacity to work together. Our thoughts are not modern. Over-idealism is good. I am pro-future. We are ancient and also pro-modern. Without harming others, we must protect ourselves.”
He said that earning more money was not bad, but one should learn to help others. “Every act of life must be surcharged with spirituality. Whenever your mind is disturbed, you will do wrong things. Acquire strength, but use it in unity. You have to control your ego, but if you have absence of ego you will be defeated. So controlled ego is needed. No one can win single-handedly,” he concluded, “but together we will win.”
Popular actor Anupam Kher received an appreciative welcome at the plenary session. He remarked, “Hinduism is a way of life, and one becomes a Hindu by living like one. Tolerance was the centerpiece of Vivekananda’s message. My roots are steeped in Hinduism. As a Hindu, it pains me deeply to see how ignorance and half knowledge are trying to destroy one of the oldest and world’s most peaceful religion.”
During the three days of deliberations, a total of 50 sessions were conducted in seven tracts—the Hindu Economic Forum with the theme, “Making Society Prosperous;” Hindu Educational Conference with the theme, “Quality Education for All;” Hindu Women Conference with the theme, “Highest Respect for Women;” Hindu Organizational Conference with the theme, “Unity is Power in the Kali Yuga;” Hindu Youth Conference with the theme, “Rise, Organize, Lead, Emerge;” Hindu Media Conference with the theme, “Truth Is Supreme;” and Hindu Political Conference with the theme, “Responsible Democracy for All.”
The panelists, speakers, coordinators and chairs shared their views and experiences, making many suggestions for creating a better Hindu identity, sustainable eternal dharma practices, protection of nature, fair and frank dissemination of information, meaningful education without historic distortions, justice for all, equality of genders, governance on fair democratic principles, and universal unity for peace and prosperity for all mankind.
The brief remarks of Prof. Arvind Sharma of McGill University, who introduced the education conference panel, “Responding to Western Academic Challenges,” give an example of the profound insights offered by various panelists: “Who are the people telling us what we Hindus are or should be at the moment? From whom comes the challenge to who we are?” He identifies three groups, all Western. First, Indologists who “attack Hinduism because Hindu self-understanding challenges Western understanding of Indian history and culture, and undermines their three-centuries-old hegemony. Hindu civilization is the only example of a major civilization the reconstruction of whose past and culture, in modern times, is not the world of its own scholars but of Western scholars.”
Mohan Bhagwat (at left) lights the lamp
The main organizer, Swami Vigyananda, greets the Vice President of India, Venkaiah Naidu, for the WHC’s last session
ALL PHOTOS COURTESY WORLD HINDU CONFERENCE
A dance presentation by Pavithra Srinivasan of Chennai
The second group are liberals whose vision of India is a Macaulayan one in which the legacy of British rule “continued in the form of the English language, Western political and legal institutions and, this is important, the conversion of India to Christianity. All the elements of this vision have been realized, except conversion to Christianity.”
And finally, Sharma said, there are the Marxists, who want India divided along class lines. But “such a vertical division of society is prevented by cultural loyalties of language, religion and so on, which cut across such divisions horizontally.” Thus, he concluded, “The Western Indologists, the liberals and the Marxists pose a joint challenge to Hinduism.”
Vamadeva Shastri, a fellow panelist with Dr. Sharma, told the India Post after the event, “The reality is that India has been the dominant civilization in the world, spiritually and culturally. India has preserved and conserved the science of consciousness, and no one can deny that. We need a higher awakening of ancient traditions.”
The Youth Conference, organized by the Hindu Students Council, Hindu Yuva and the UK National Hindu Students Foundation, focused on how the youth can contribute to a stronger future for Hindus and Hinduism. The Hindu Students Council’s report on this meeting praised the first panel session, on strengthening Hindu identity, saying the panelists from the UK, New Zealand and Trinidad conducted an insightful examination into how young people can contribute to changing the narrative of Hindu identity. Their report commended a second panel that dealt with proactive engagement with the media—how to correct the media’s under-representation of Hinduism and counter false narratives of Hinduism as they appear.
Parth Parihar of the HSC explained in more depth in the Indo American News: “One important issue was ‘Strengthening Hindu Identity.’ As speaker Murali Magesan of New Zealand put it, ‘We see the vast achievements of Hindu society and would expect that people would identify as Hindu very proudly. But, it’s not happening,… so we must ask, why?’ As the conference would elaborate, ‘not knowing’ how to represent Hindu dharma has led to voices outside the community speaking for our traditions and in the process misrepresenting them at times. The goal before the current generation of young Hindus is to build a positive, modern vision of Hindu identity and present this vision confidently in all walks of life.”
Addressing the concluding session on September 9, Vice President Venkaiah Naidu invoked the message of Vedanta philosophy, as had Swami Vivekananda, saying, “The story of Ramayana continues to be popular and inspires the world. That is why India is known as Vishwa Guru (“world guru”). India has taught the world tolerance and universal acceptance of all religions, and itself practices both. India’s vision is very broad—India considers the whole world is a family, Vasudaika Kutumbakam. The world is the manifestation of the Divine—God.”
ALL PHOTOS COURTESY WORLD HINDU CONFERENCE
Breakout sessions: Participants in the youth conference gathered for a group photo
The colorful banners created for six of the WHC’s parallel sessions
He went on to say that Swami Vivekananda’s timeless message of tolerance, charity, gender equality and protection of nature was still relevant even today. “Ideal behavior is more important than ideology. That is the spirit of Hinduism.”
Dinanatha Bodhiswami flew from Moscow to attend the event and introduced the Russian edition of HINDUISM TODAY, of which he is the editor. He was pleased with the event, and said, “I felt light-hearted, full of strength and confident in the future. My teachers and mentors, the wise rishis of old, a billion devotees around the globe and the best religion that has ever existed in the history of humanity are always with me.”
Karolina Goswami of the popular “Indian in Details” YouTube channel, offered these observations from her participation: “There are many ideologies that have had their entire focus on conquering the world, which has given us violence and hate and encouraged the vilification of many native traditions. But India’s dharmic religions encourage us to focus on conquering our minds, an inward goal by which we should be able to reduce wrongdoings globally. I felt that the WHC helped many Hindus to work together for the common objectives of serving humanity, preserving their golden heritage and encouraging a fairer representation of their traditions and cultures in the global media.”
Vamadeva Shastri commented to HINDUISM TODAY, “The WHC was a pivotal event for the entire global Hindu community. It indicated a paradigm shift in the Hindu mind, with a new self-confidence and clarity of self-articulation. Old anti-Hindu prejudices and stereotypes will no longer be tolerated or silently endured. At the same time, the event revealed how entrenched anti-Hindu forces, particularly of the radical left, are afraid of the Hindu community asserting itself in the West, but the WHC shows that they can no longer control the agenda.”
There’s a YouTube interview, bit.ly/WHC-Elst, with Koenraad Elst, part of the education panel, with some insightful analysis.
There were many compliments and few complaints about the well-run event. Some observed that the frequent use of Hindi—during plenary session speeches, in particular—annoyed the South Indians and second generation listeners who did not speak the language. Others complained about the wall-to-wall speeches (12 hours some days), saying more time should have been allowed for delegates to interact with each other. We at HINDUISM TODAY noted that the media coverage and YouTube broadcasting could have been much more extensive.
In a note sent out to all the volunteers who ran the event, organizer Abhaya Ashthana captured the magic: “With Ishwara’s grace, things came together nicely for WHC 2018. As they say, when folks join sincerely in a cause bigger than themselves, Daivam (God) ensures the rest. The three days went by like a breeze, but left faces, images and words engraved in our mind for a lifetime. We all felt touched, humbled and delighted by the presentations, talks and personal conversations. Delegates were extremely appreciative of the quality and caliber of the conference; they enjoyed the food, the hospitality and departed with a smile and promise to meet again in Bangkok 2022.”
The theme for the Third World Hindu Congress, to be held in Thailand from November 4 to 6, 2022, was announced as “Victory of Dharma, Not Adharma.”
With reporting by J. V.
Lakshmana Rao, Chicago
A Grand Success
AT THE CHENNAI AIRPORT THE night of September 5, hundreds of Hindus, some with orange banners, were boarding flights for Chicago via Europe. Soon enough we were all at the conference site outside Chicago. I have never seen so many Hindus together, except in melas and kumbhs—and talking so loudly and happily!
Many famous faces greet us as well: Rajiv Malhotra, already busy conducting interviews to promote and defend Hinduism; Vivek Agnihotri, one of the most remarkable defenders of the Hindus; Mohandas Pai, chairperson of Manipal Global; Subhash Kak, a quiet and brilliant scholar of Hindu dharma; and a few Western ones, too: David Frawley, a wonderful Vedic scholar; and Koenraad Elst, one of the first to defend Hinduism in the West.
On the morning of the 7th, the speeches are long, but the energy is good; the huge hall is packed and each speech is cheered wildly, including the opening by Shri Mohan Bhagwat and a short but strong talk by actor Anupam Kher. A few big names are missing, apparently impacted by the adverse publicity by fringe groups against this conference. But believe me, you could not find anything milder than a Hindu, and this WHC was anything but fundamentalist. It sometimes enrages me that the most peaceful, most tolerant religion of this planet, that accepts that God takes many names and faces, is attacked and vilified so much.
There were many parallel conferences—women, youth, education, media, writers, etc. The youth conference, featuring young NRIs as well as India-based youth, had a packed audience. The economic conference was also fascinating, with a passionate expose from many, including Mohandas Pai, showing the astonishing economic progress accomplished over the last several years in India along with a strong message for the numerous NRI’s present: “Work happens in India; this is where you need to reinvest your energies and contribute to the economic growth.”
In the writers’ session, which had been renamed “Hindu Identity in the Modern World,”Amish Tripathi spoke brilliantly about this Hindu identity. Sree Iyer, the founder of the PGurus magazine, spoke eloquently about his task to tackle corruption in the media, while R. Jagannathan, editorial director of Swarajya magazine, highlighted the need to think Hindu.
I spoke about Kashmir, which I have covered extensively for 12 years and just came out with a new book In Defense of a Billion Hindus, which has an entire chapter devoted to the region. I commiserated with the exodus of 400,000 Hindus becoming refugees in their own land, a phenomenon I witnessed firsthand.
This conference made us feel that in spite of so much Hinduphobia in the media and academic circles, it is wonderful to be a Hindu today—that Hindu identity remains strong even after centuries of genocide on Hindus. Some of us spoke about the five-pronged attacks that we see on Hindus today: from the media, from the Marxists, from the Christian missionaries and their unabated conversion via financial incentives (as witnessed recently during the Kerala flood); from Islamic fundamentalism, which stems from so many Indian Muslims going to work in the Gulf countries and coming back radicalized; and from the rampant Westernization of rural India, mostly through TV channels, which convinces innocent women that a cheap cream will make them fairer, or innocent boys that wearing a suit will turn them into real men.
As emphasized by the Vice President of India in his closing speech, the message of this conference was very clear: Hindus need to forget their differences, unite and stand up for their bothers and sisters, whenever they are attacked. Hindus are one billion worldwide, one in seven persons on this earth, and they hold the last of the knowledge which once roamed the world, from Greece to Mesopotamia, from Egypt to the Celts: “Who am I, what is dharma, what is karma, what are the tools to become a better human being (meditation, etc.), why am I reborn again and again?”
Lastly we should thank the organizers for having brought 2,500 Hindus together, not a mean task. See you then in Bangkok, in 2022!
FRANÇOIS GAUTIER is the editor-in-chief of the Paris-based La Revue de l’Inde, and has written several books on India. Follow him on: facebook.com/francoisgautierofficial
Are Humans Natural Herbivores?
Our teenage correspondent offers evidence supporting a vegetarian diet, including human and animal anatomy, biochemistry and more
HUMAN SOCIETIES ALL ACROSS THE globe have consumed meat for thousands of years. Their cuisine has included traditional farm animals, such as cows, pigs, chickens, and goats, as well as seafood, including fish and crustaceans. Some may argue that meat eating has been an essential part of human history and evolution and is an intrinsic part of our culture today.
However, there are a few societies on Earth today that follow herbivorous diets rather than omnivorous diets. These vegetarian or vegan societies can be found throughout the subcontinent of India, where hundreds of millions of people have abstained from eating meat for the last few thousand years.
The meat-eating debate has been long and drawn out. Many oppose meat eating because it causes himsa, or violence, to other beings on this planet. Those who support meat eating claim that it is needed for a complete diet and is simply a natural cycle that we must fulfill in order to survive.
Compelling evidence has risen within the past decade or so that sheds new light on this topic. Ground-breaking studies show not only that we do not need meat for our survival, but in fact it is harming those who consume it. Herbivorous diets are the perfect diets for humans because our anatomy is specifically tailored to vegetarian/vegan diets. Our anatomical features and health benefits prove it.
To understand why a herbivorous diet is the best for our anatomy, it is first important to identify the unique features of the digestive system of a carnivore, herbivore, and finally an omnivore. Carnivores are organisms that eat exclusively meat and do not need plant matter for their bodies to function. All carnivores have sharp teeth for tearing meat. They do not possess flat molars in the back of their mouth for chewing plant matter. When they tear off a piece of meat, they do not chew it; they tend to swallow the chunks of it whole. This is because carnivores do not secrete amylase in their saliva, unlike herbivores. Amylase, an enzyme that pre-digests carbohydrates in the mouth, is only found in multicellular organisms that consume plants. Also, the digestive tract of a carnivore is normally five to six times the length of its torso and is relatively linear, rather than intricately coiled up or folded over. This digestive tract allows for the fast digestion of meat, assuring that the flesh does not putrefy within the intestines.
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Also, because they eat their meat raw, and uncooked, all carnivores have a stomach pH of less than 2.0. Such an extremely acidic pH allows for the destruction of bacteria and parasites that dwell on the flesh of rotting carcasses. Even true omnivores can consume raw meat, as their stomach pH can effectively handle the harmful parasites on the meat.
Herbivores are organisms that eat solely plant matter for their bodies to function. All herbivores have flat teeth, including flat molars in the back of their mouths to allow them to mash and grind up tough plant material. Unlike carnivores, herbivores can also move their mouth from side to side, instead of just up and down like a carnivore. This process further aids the herbivore in chewing plant matter. Another key characteristic of the herbivore is their unique digestive tract. All herbivores have intestinal tracts that are folded up and extremely long, usually multiple times the length of their body. This arrangement allows for a thorough breakdown of plants for optimal nutrient absorption. Digestion in an herbivore starts in the mouth, unlike a carnivore. Herbivores must chew their food before swallowing it. This helps to pre-digest it before it reaches the stomach, and then the intestines. Unlike a carnivore, the saliva of an herbivore contains amylase, which is useful for breaking down carbohydrates in the mouth. Not many parasites or harmful bacteria grow on plants, so herbivores do not need an extremely low stomach pH. Their stomach pH tends to be more basic (alkaline) than that of a carnivore.
Omnivores are organisms that eat both plants and animals. Humans are widely considered to be omnivores, but this is quite incorrect. To correctly explain the anatomy of an omnivore, it is best to use an ideal example, such as a bear.
Bears are truly omnivorous creatures; over half their diet consists of plant matter and a moderate portion consists of meat. For omnivores to be successful, it is vital that they have sharp teeth and claws. The digestive system must be well suited to digesting meat, even if the diet is mostly herbivorous, because raw meat has the potential to inflict serious illness or death on the creature.
Accordingly, bears have sharp teeth and sharp claws, and their digestive tract is similar to that of a carnivore—short and highly acidic. To help consume herbivorous food, they have flat molars in the back of their mouth, and they chew their food instead of swallowing it whole. These traits can be observed in other omnivorous creatures such as domesticated canines (dogs), and raccoons.
The anatomy of a human is strikingly similar to that of an herbivore. Our teeth are designed to grind and chew plant matter. In fact, we have additional molars, called wisdom teeth, in the back of our mouth to further help us chew hard-to-digest foods such as roots, tubers, and foliage. Our jaws can move not only up and down, but also side to side, unlike carnivores. The most striking thing, however, is our digestive system. It is long and coiled, just like a herbivore; and our saliva contains amylase, which helps to break down starches or carbohydrates in our food. Our stomach pH also is similar to that of an herbivore—around 4-5 when consuming food, much less acid than that of a carnivore.
Humans are anatomically not omnivores. Our digestive tract is not like that of carnivores, we do not have sharp teeth or nails, and we normally do NOT eat raw meat. Humans are the only animals that cook their food, and the food that must be cooked before it is consumed is meat. Plant matter doesn’t have to be cooked to be safe to consume, although it is advised that you cook most of the food you consume.
Eskimos: Indigenous tribes of the North eat mostly meat ten months out of the year, and their health suffers from the lack of plants in their diet
If we were true omnivores, we would have the capability of eating raw meat. Our stomach pH does not support the consumption of raw meat. Moreover, if we were designed as omnivores, we would have the capability of eating raw meat without even chewing it. We would be able to tear off chunks of meat and swallow them whole, with no issue whatsoever. Researchers from Harvard University have concluded that humans do not have the necessary gut flora to properly digest meat, even if it is cooked. In this study, researchers had two groups of subjects. For five days, one group could only eat meat and dairy for all three meals. The other group was restricted to a herbivorous diet which included fruits, vegetables, leafy greens, tubers, and legumes.
Their results were astonishing, even though the experiment lasted for only five days. The meat group had an explosion of the bacteria Bilophila. This Harvard study, published in the reputed scientific journal Nature, demonstrated that, “increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids, and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease.” Their entire intestine became filled with it within just a day or two. While this bacteria has the ability to digest stomach fats, it does not have the ability to digest meat particles. The worst part is that Bilophila has been shown to cause intestinal inflammation and colitis, which has been verified through trials on mice. A meat-rich diet would actually promote the destruction of our own intestines, as our intestinal walls would become severely inflamed.
Even when given scientific data, many people are adamant that humans are truly meant to eat meat. They argue that some societies have lived on meat-dominant diets for thousands of years and have not had many health problems. They offer examples such as the Eskimos, an Arctic-dwelling people who mainly live on whale, caribou and fish throughout the entire year, only eating grasses, roots and tubers during the two summer months.
Furthermore, meat-eating proponents correctly claim that many vegetarians and vegans suffer from B12 vitamin deficiencies. They also argue that the purpose of our canine teeth is for tearing meat, which therefore justifies the consumption of meat. Their biggest argument is that meat was actually needed by our ancestors to evolve into modern-day humans. There are many issues with these arguments, although each contains elements of truth.
Firstly, it is true that people have been eating meat for thousands of years. However, it is not true that they have had few health problems. The Eskimo are a prime example of a modern-day people that still live a lifestyle that was prevalent hundreds of years ago. Experts and scientists have long marveled at this lifestyle because the Eskimo eat meat at every single meal, without much or any plant matter, and still look healthy and happy. But looks can be deceiving. The average lifespan of an Eskimo is in the 60s, while the average lifespan of others today is 80. They suffer from many ailments common to heavy meat eaters, such as atherosclerosis, a condition in which the arteries harden due to the deposition of fat and plaque on the walls of the arteries. Twelve percent of the Eskimo population suffers from internal parasites due to the consumption of meat, including raw meat.
Vitamin B12 is essential to the human digestive system. Although it is true that vegans and vegetarians may suffer from B12 deficiencies, it does not mean that meat is essential to the human diet. It is a common misunderstanding that the only natural source of vitamin B12 is meat. Vitamin B12 comes from bacteria that reside in the soil. Meat is rich in B12 because the animal, most likely an herbivore, ate food directly from the soil such as grass, or seed. Back in the day, our ancestors were able to consume adequate amounts of B12 through the consumption of plants straight from the soil.
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Nowadays, however, our food is so clean and free of dirt that we cannot benefit from the B12 supplementation that soil provides. It is still recommended, however, that you continue to wash your foods in order to get rid of any pesticides that may be on the produce. The only way that it would be safe to eat “unclean” produce would be to grow it yourself in an environment without pesticides, such as a home garden. Luckily, vegetarians can also obtain B12 from yogurt, since it is rich in beneficial bacteria.
Another false argument that people use is the classic canine teeth argument. “If we weren’t meant to eat meat, why do I have these sharp, meat eating teeth in my mouth?” What do gorillas and hippos have in common? They both have intimidatingly large canines that are quite sharp. Both happen to be herbivores. Why do herbivores have canine teeth? Scientists have noticed that gorillas and hippos do not use their canine teeth for food consumption, but rather for defensive tactics. When threatened by a predator, or another member of their own species, they will often display their sharp canines to intimidate the aggressor. If the fight escalates, they can use them to good advantage. Scientists theorize that early humans used their canines in the same way, but these teeth have become a vestigial body part now; we do not display our teeth as a sign of aggression or defense.
The final and most prevalent argument that people use to defend their meat-eating habits is that humanity’s early ancestors needed meat to gradually develop and sustain the larger brain that is found in humans of today. This is entirely false. It has been proven by various studies that it was not meat that made us humans. In fact, it was cooked starches that allowed us to evolve with bigger brains. Carbohydrates are without doubt the best source of immediate energy, and carbohydrates are fully capable of supporting a human brain alone. Protein and fat are far less efficient. Further, it has been proven that protein and fat alone cannot support an enlarged brain because the brain needs so much energy. It is a common misunderstanding that meat is a great source of energy. That is not true. Carbohydrates are typically found in starchy foods such as yams, beets, and potatoes.
In a 2016 study published by the scientific journal, Quaternary International, researchers asserted that, “Starchy plant foods provide the energy needed to support an enlarged brain…”
We started to develop the bigger brain once we learned how to cook. Cooked, starches such as potatoes are 20 times easier to digest than in their raw form. This huge advancement allowed us to expend less energy digesting food, which in turn allowed more energy for the brain to use.
The benefits of a herbivorous diet are vast, which further proves that the human diet was simply not meant to include meat. Vegetarians and vegans suffer less from atherosclerosis, colon cancer, heart disease, and high cholesterol levels, because they do not eat meat.
If humans were true omnivores anatomically, none of these diseases would affect us. Carnivores and omnivores do not get clogged arteries from meat, nor do they get cholesterol-related heart diseases. Vegetarians and vegans also have a longer lifespan on average and tend to be less obese.
A peer-reviewed 2003 Oxford University study of 37,875 healthy men and women aged 20-97 showed that 3% of vegetarians suffered from obesity versus 5.4% of meat eaters suffered from obesity. Followers of a diet that included meat also had an average Body Mass Index (BMI) that was 8.3% higher than vegetarians. To further support this finding, a 2006 meta-study comprised from data gathered from 87 studies found that vegetarian diets are associated with reduced body weight. A reduced BMI proves that not only are vegetarians lighter, but that they will generally be healthier as well because many diseases are a by-product of obesity, such as coronary artery disease and hypertension. The lighter weight of vegetarians is attributed to the fact that the diet is nutrient rich, yet low in calories. Many meat consumers are obese because the amount of calories in a portion of meat a lot more than compared to the same portion of vegetables. In this way, followers of a herbivorous can lose weight because they still become full, but without the unnecessary calories. Additionally, meat eating can increase your chances of getting colon cancer. According to a peer-reviewed 1994 study by Harvard researchers, consuming meats such as beef, pork, or lamb at least 5 times a week can drastically increase chances of developing colon cancer. Eating processed meats such as bacon or sausage can further increase the chance of colon cancer, as discovered by The World Cancer Research Fund. Many people are concerned that plant based proteins aren’t up to par with their animal based counterparts. However, a 2014 study found people who got their protein from animal products were four times more likely to die of cancer than people who obtained their protein from plant based sources. Lastly, vegetarians and vegans usually have lower cholesterol levels than meat-eaters, which is good for preventing cholesterol-related heart diseases. The lower cholesterol levels can be attributed to the fact that plants don’t contain cholesterol, whereas animal products do. The health benefits of vegetarian and vegan diets are plentiful, and it has been shown that a plant based lifestyle could prove to be more healthy than one based on meat.
After learning how destructive the consumption of meat can be to one’s digestive system, it is natural to wonder, “Why have humans been consuming meat for the past few thousand years if it was so bad for us this entire time?” A few thousand years ago, meat was a rare commodity. It is a common misunderstanding that most ancient people ate meat every day. Most of their diet consisted of seeds, nuts, berries, roots, tubers, vegetables, and fruits. Hunting took a lot of time and energy, and hunting technology was quite basic compared to the hunting gear of today. Meat was not easy to come by. When people did have meat, they would often split one animal among many people and would only get a few bites in a meal. Diets in which meat made up a small portion were prevalent throughout almost all societies on Earth, with few exceptions, like the Eskimo and other pastoral peoples, who mainly lived off animal products. Most societies did not suffer from diabetes, heart disease, and atherosclerosis, which are all common ailments of heavy meat eaters.
With the swift increase in globalization, the demand for meat has skyrocketed, especially in Eastern countries that in the past consumed lower meat quantities. Now, meat makes up a big portion of people’s diet around the world. Fruits and vegetables are now the rarer commodity in most households. This unhealthy overconsumption of meat has caused the health problems we now see today.
Humans went from a mostly vegetarian diet to a mostly carnivorous diet within the last hundred or so years. Our bodies would need more time to evolve to adapt to a diet filled with meat and processed foods; we, as a species, have not yet adapted to this burden. Hence, we are now facing the consequences of a quick, but major dietary shift.
In summary, humans were not created to consume meat. Our anatomy is not similar to that of a carnivore or an omnivore, and we suffer from many diseases that are linked to meat consumption. There are endless benefits to a herbivorous diet, which anyone can experience for themselves if they try it. Though it may be hard to say goodbye to fried chicken and the monthly neighborhood barbecue, your body will thank you in the long run.
Mayuresh Visswanathan is a junior at San Marcos High School near San Diego, CA. He is a vegetarian varsity athlete with a passion for raising freshwater fish and aquatic plants.
The Alvars: Tamil Nadu, ca 500–900
Sacred fellowship: Artist Baani Sekhon depicts 12 famed Vaishnava Alwar saints encircling a pink lotus holding the sacred namam, the symbol of Lord Vishnu, whom they all worshiped and offered hymns to; (right) statues of the Alvars at the Adhinatha Perumal Temple of Alvar Thirunagari, Tamil Nadu.
As torchbearers of the Sri Vaishnava tradition of South India from the sixth through ninth centuries, the 12 Alvars of Tamil Nadu spread the message of fervent love, devotion and spiritual surrender unto the Divine. Alvar means one who is “immersed deeply in” the love of God. These poet-saints, all great devotees of Maha Vishnu, came from diverse communities in the Tamil South. They traveled to temples far and wide, collectively composing 4,000 hymns (pasurams) in praise of Vishnu and Krishna. In the 10th century, theologian Nathamuni compiled their works as the Nalayira Divya Prabandham (Divine Collection of 4,000 Hymns) and set them to music for singing in temples. The Divya Prabandham is hailed as the “Vedas of the Dravidians,” as they convey the message of the Vedas and Upanishads in accessible Tamil. The Alvars propound a personal and emotional approach as they dote on and chide Perumal/Vishnu through their passionate bhakti poetry, which devotees memorize, recite, sing, listen and dance to. The songs of the Prabandham are regularly sung in South Indian Vishnu temples and homes, especially during festivals.
Traditional accounts portray each Alvar as an incarnation of a divine aspect of the Supreme Maha Vishnu, as follows:
Poigai Alvar: Panchajanya (Vishnu’s conch)
Bhoothath Alvar: Kaumodaki (Vishnu’s mace)
Pey Alvar: Nandaka (Vishnu’s sword)
Thirumazhisai Alvar: Sudarshana Chakra (Vishnu’s discus)
Nammalvar: Vishvaksena (Vishnu’s army commander)
Madhurakavi Alvar: Vainatheya (Vishnu’s eagle Garuda)
Kulasekhara Alvar: Kaustubha (Vishnu’s divine gem)
Periyalvar: Garuda (Vishnu’s vahana/vehicle)
Sri Andal: Bhudevi (Vishnu’s wife, Lakshmi)
Thondaradippodi Alvar: Vanamalai (Vishnu’s garland)
Thiruppan Alvar: Srivatsa (auspicious mark on Vishnu’s chest)
Thirumangai Alvar: Saranga (Vishnu’s bow)
Poigai Alvar, Bhoothath Alvar, and Pey Alvar, three contemporaries, are considered the Mudal Alvars (first Alvars). Here we feature two other Alvars who were highly renowned.
Born in Srivilliputhur and brought up by Periyar (also an alvar), the maiden named Kothai maintained that she would marry only Lord Ranganatha of Thiruvarangam. Her devotion and surrender earned her the name Andal, the girl who “ruled” over the Lord. Her ardent wish was to merge with her divine beloved Perumal, which happened when she was only 15 years old. Andal, the only female poet-saint among the Alvars, composed the great Thiruppavai and Nachiar Thirumozhi as offerings to her darling Kannan (an endearing name of Ranganatha). These hymns are recited whenever bhaktas celebrate her inspiring devotional legacy, especially during the annual Markali festival.
Nammalvar (“our Alvar”) is one of the most famous and prolific of the group. His poetry contributed greatly to philosophy and theology of Tamil Vaishnavism. Along with the hymns of the Saiva Nayanars—Appar, Sundarar and Sambandar—Nammalvar’s soul-stirring Tamil poetry had a deep impact on the South Indian Pallava kings. At a time when Buddhism and Jainism played a major role in society and threatened to displace Hinduism, these saints inspired royalty and common people alike to hold firmly to the Hindu path and tradition.
To the Alvars, the Lord is not a mere idea but a concrete presence. Through their magnificent hymns in the Divya Prabandham, the saints sang about Lord Vishnu presiding in 108 temples. Each of these temples is celebrated as a Divya Desam, “divine precinct,” and together form a map of sacred geography and pilgrimage for the Sri Vaishnava community. India is home to 105 of these sanctuaries, spread across Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. One Divya Desam is in Nepal, and two are in celestial realms—Thiruparkadal (ocean of milk upon which Vishnu reclines), and Paramapadam (Vishnu’s heavenly abode, Vaikuntha).
Inspired by Andal
“Andal offers a garland after trying it on herself, showing us that the Lord accepts what is offered with pure, unadulterated love. On a deeper level, there is an Andal in every young girl who dreams of a life partner worthy of worship, love and respect. A dancer can easily tap into that sentiment when we depict Tiruppavai and Varanam Ayiram.”
SHOBHA SUBRAMANIAN, BHARATANATYAM DANCER & JAYAMANGALA DANCE DIRECTOR, MARYLAND, USA
Did You Know?
The beautiful Srirangam Temple, glorified in the Divya Prabandham, is the largest functioning Hindu temple in the world, drawing a million devotees during the annual 21-day Markali festival in December–January. Tiruvenkata Divya Desam, one of the two kshetrams in Andhra Pradesh, is a cluster of three temples, one of which is the hugely celebrated Tirumala Venkateswara Temple at Tirupati. The term Sri Vaishnava can be found in 10th-century inscriptions in this temple.
LEARN MORE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Visit the 105 Divya Desams in India, and one in Nepal
Listen to the Divya Prabandham on YouTube or in Vishnu temples
Read Vasudha Narayanan’s Weaving Garlands in Tamil: The Poetry of the Alvars
The Nalvars: Tamil Nadu, ca 600–90
Samayacharyar: The four Saiva saints encircle God Siva, offering their Tamil songs in worship; (right) the golden roof of Chidambaram Temple’s central sanctum in Tamil Nadu.
During the 6th through 9th centuries, South India was home to 63 fervent devotees of Lord Siva who became known as the Nayanars (or Nayanars). Several among these pious souls, coming from all segments of society—potter, fisherman, farmer, merchant, priest, hunter, washerman—composed devotional hymns that are sung to this day by devotees worldwide. A festival dedicated to the 63 Nayanmars, the Arupathu Moovar Thiruvila, is held annually at Kapaleeswarar Temple in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
Three of the most prominent Nayanars—Appar, Sambandar and Sundarar (composers of Thevaram hymns)—along with Manikkavasagar are called the Samayacharyas (teachers of the faith) referred to in Tamil as Nalvar, “The Four.” They promoted Saiva Siddhanta philosophy and culture, countering the incursion of Jainism and Buddhism. They taught that Siva is Love and that love (for all beings—indeed, for all existence) is the key to reaching Siva, the Supreme Being.
Thirugnana Sambandar was born to a pious Brahmin couple in Sirkali in the 7th century after the father had prayed to Lord Siva for a worthy son who would reestablish the glory of Saivism. When he was three, his parents took him to Sattainathar Siva Temple and told him to wait near the pond. Soon the child started crying, and Goddess Parvati, along with Lord Siva as Thoniappar, came to console and nurse him. When the parents returned, they saw milk on his mouth and asked who had fed him. Sambandar pointed heavenward, spontaneously singing his first hymn about Siva, “Thodudaiya Seviyan.” The milk is regarded as Sivajnanam, milk of divine wisdom or knowledge of Siva, and the child became known as Thirugnana Sambandar (the saint related to God by knowledge), and as Aludaiya Pillayar (the Lord’s child).
Sambandar is glorified in the Periyapuranam as Tala Vendan, the unparalleled king of rhythm. The prodigy starting singing about the Vedas at age seven, eventually composing a body of hymns that comprise volumes 1-3 of the Thirumurai, the 12-volume compendium of hymns and writings by South Indian Saivite saints. In his short life Sambandar bested Jain monks in debate and brought the hunchbacked king Koon Pandyan (later Sundara Pandyan) back into the Saivite tradition.
When a wedding was arranged for him at age 16, Sambandar sang to Siva seeking liberation. Legend tells us that there appeared a great blaze of light—Siva Jyoti, the light of Siva. Then, as Sambandar composed the “Panchakshara Padigam,” everyone present attained union with Lord Siva, the source and final destination of all.
Thirunavukkarasar, or Appar
The 7th-century poet-saint Thirunavukkarasar pilgrimaged on foot to at least 125 Tamil Nadu temples, humbly sweeping the temple paths, worshiping and composing hymns praising Siva. When he met child-saint Sambandar, he prostrated at the boy’s feet. Sambandar reciprocated and respectfully addressed him as Appar (father), the name by which he is commonly known.
Born as Maruneekkiyar in a Vellalar family of Saivites in Tiruvamur village, the saint lost his parents as a child and was mothered by his sister Tilakavathiyar. The transience of life stimulated in him a yearning for everlasting truth. He joined a Jain monastery, and his sister prayed to Siva to bring him back to Saivism. The boy fell severely ill and returned home. Brother and sister prayed at Thiruvadigai Temple, and Maruneekkiyar was cured. Becoming a fervent Siva devotee, he composed many Siva hymns (Thirumurai volumes 4-6) and was named Thirunavukkarasar, “king of divine speech.” At 81, Appar attained mukti at Agnipureeswarar Siva Temple in Thirupugalur.
Sundaramurti Nayanar, uniquely, was born to parents who are also Nayanars, around 800ce. His hymns comprise the seventh Thirumurai volume. When he was about to get married, an old ascetic covered in sacred ash and rudraksha beads interrupted the wedding, claiming that Sundarar was his slave, citing a palm-leaf manuscript. Sundarar called him a pitthan (lunatic). But the palm leaf proved valid, and Sundarar followed the man to the Thiruvennainallur Siva temple, where the ascetic disappeared into the sanctum. Lord Siva asked Sundarar to compose a hymn with the word pitthan per his initial address. Sundarar sang this first hymn, “Pittha pirai choodi” (O crazy one wearing the crescent moon), venerating the Lord at Tiru Arul Turai Temple (today’s Kripapureeswarar Perumal Temple), one of 82 Siva temples he visited in his life. Sundarar lived only 18 years but became one of the foremost saints of Tamil Saiva poetry.
Manikkavasagar was born as Vadavurar in a Saivite priest family in 9th-century Thiruvadavur, near Madurai, and rose to become prime minister to the Pandyan king. According to later accounts, one day the king gave him a large sum of money to purchase war horses. On the way, the minister was drawn to an ascetic (who was in fact Lord Siva) sitting with disciples under a tree. Vadavurar, taking the sage as his guru, sat at his feet in meditation and received enlightenment. Totally forgetting the king’s assignment, he renounced the world and used the royal funds to build the Athmanathaswami Temple (Avudaiyarkoil).
The hymns of Manikkavasagar (“he of ruby-like utterances”), comprising Thirumurai volume 8, express his aspirations, trials and yogic realizations, praise the Namasivaya mantra, and stress cultivating love for Siva. The king, too, was blessed by Lord Siva and gave up his throne to pursue spiritual life. Sculptures illustrating the poet-saint’s life can be found in the Madurai Meenakshi Sundaresvara Temple and in the Chidambaram Nataraja Temple, where he spent his final days.
LEARN MORE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Read Sixty-Three Nayanar Saints by Swami Sivananda
Listen to Tevaram
Visit the Padal Petra Sthalams in South India, 275 temples revered in Tevaram
Karaikkal Ammaiyar: Tamil Nadu, ca 500
Cymbals of love: Karaikkal Ammaiyar sings to her dancing Lord Nataraja, as two ripe mangos hint at her early life; (right) the Karaikkal Ammaiyar Temple in Karaikkal town, built to honor the Goddess Punitavati.
Hailing from the coastal town of Karaikkal in present-day Tamil Nadu, Karaikkal Ammaiyar (the “revered mother of Karaikkal”) is one of the most renowned female devotees of Lord Siva. She lived around the 6th century and was a significant contributor to early Tamil bhakti literature during the “Saiva Age” (ca 5th–13th century), when the worship of Lord Siva was predominant across India. Karaikkal Ammaiyar is known as the first Siva-bhakti poet-saint in Tamil language literature, and one of only three female Nayanars, along with Isaijnaniyar and Mangayarkarasiyar. Karaikkal Ammaiyar was born as Punitavati, “the pure one,” in a prosperous merchant family in the Nattukottai Chettiar community. The little girl was profoundly devoted to Lord Siva. As soon as she came of age, beautiful Punitavati was married to Paramadattan, a wealthy merchant.
Punitavati Becomes Karaikkal Ammaiyar
Punitavati and Paramadattan were a happily married couple. One day Paramadattan sent home two mangoes from work, which his wife saved for him. That same day, a holy man visited her house seeking alms. With nothing else to offer, she gave him one mango with cooked rice. The Siva devotee ate the food, blessed her and left. When Paramadattan returned home, Punitavati served him the remaining mango. Enjoying the fruit, he asked for the second. Punitavati was in a fix; she did not want to tell her husband she had given the mango away. Eyes closed, palms open in prayer, she prayed to Lord Siva. Miraculously, a mango appeared in her hands! She thanked the Lord and joyfully took the mango to her husband. Tasting the fruit, however, he noticed a difference. When he probed further, Punitavati told him that mango was from Lord Siva. Paramadattan was incredulous and challenged her to get one more mango from the Lord. Due to her unshakable faith and prayers, Siva materialized another mango in her hands, but when Paramadattan reached for it, the fruit disappeared. This moment changed Punitavati’s life, laying the bricks for her transformation into the poet-saint Karaikkal Ammaiyar. Paramadattan left his wife and the town, and eventually remarried. Many years later, he returned with his new wife and daughter (whom they had named Punitavati) to seek the blessings of Karaikkal Ammaiyar, whom he now considered a goddess.
Realizing that her young, beautiful form would only be a source of unwanted complications in her life, she prayed to Siva to grant her the appearance of a pey, meaning ghoul in Tamil. Lord Siva granted her wish by freeing her from all worldly hindrances, and the transformed Ammaiyar spontaneously sang the “Arputat Tiruvantati,” her longest devotional work. From then on, Karaikkal Ammaiyar became known as Peyar, as she assumed the form of an emaciated old woman.
The transformed bhaktar went on pilgrimage to Mount Kailash, Siva and Parvati’s sacred abode in the Himalayas. Considering it a sin to place her feet on the blessed mountain, she made the journey on her hands. As described in Karen Pechilis’ work, Karaikkal Ammaiyar beseeched the Lord: “May those who desire you with undying joyful love not be reborn; if I am born again, may I never forget you; may I sit at your feet, happily singing while you, virtue itself, dance.” Lord Siva told her to visit Thiruvalangadu, where she would witness His cosmic dance.
Karaikkal Ammaiyar devoted her life to singing hymns in praise of Siva, though her biographical story might be even more popularly known than her poetic contributions. We know of four devotional works that Ammaiyar composed, a total of 143 verses, through which she invented certain Tamil poetic forms, including the antati genre, in which the last word of every verse is the same as the first word of the following verse of the poem.
Themes in Ammaiyar’s poetry include Siva as the heroic ideal, His majestic cosmic dance as Nataraja, Ammaiyar’s servitude, ridiculing those who don’t see Siva as the ultimate goal, and the spiritual significance of the cremation ground. Ammaiyar urges us to constantly meditate on Lord Siva rather than focusing on rituals. She signed some of her poems as “Karaikkal-pey,” as per the form that she requested Siva to bless her with. Her eloquent poetry, at times filled with imagery of death and decay, demonstrates the path of devotional love that leads a human being to liberation from the cycle of birth and death.
During the Chola rule in the 12th century, around 600 years after Ammaiyar’s time, her biography was included in the Periyapuranam (“great narrative”) of court poet Sekkilar, with 4,253 verses in Tamil describing the lives of the 63 Nayanmars. This work, also known as the Thiruthondar Puranam, is one of the popular texts of the Saiva cannon. In art, Ammaiyar is often depicted as an old woman, cymbals in hand and with a joyful smile expressive of her oneness with Siva. Sculptures of this extraordinary poet-saint, some created during the Chola period, can be viewed in museums around the world.
The temple most closely associated with the life of Karaikkal Ammaiyar is the Sri Vadaranyeswarar Temple in Thiruvalangadu, one of the five renowned Nataraja temples, where Lord Siva performs the Cosmic Dance (Siva tandava). Here Karaikkal Ammaiyar settled down with Siva’s guidance, composed hymns, watched Lord Siva dance into eternity and ultimately attained spiritual liberation (mukti). Her saint-day is celebrated here each year.
In 1929, the Karaikal Ammaiyar Temple was constructed by Malaiperumal Pillai in the center of Karaikkal, the birthplace of the poet-saint. The main Goddess here is Punitavati—Karaikkal Ammaiyar herself. The annual mango festival, called the Mangani Tirunal festival, is celebrated to commemorate the great mango legend associated with the saint.
LEARN MORE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Visit Sri Vadaranyeswarar Temple & Karaikal Ammaiyar Temple in Tamil Nadu, India
Read Interpreting Devotion, by Karen Pechilis
Watch “Karaikkal Ammaiyar” Tamil film (1973)
Akka Mahadevi: Karnataka, c.1130-1160
Dressed in tresses: Following the Virasaiva tradition, Mahadevi holds a Siva Lingam in one hand and offers flowers to it with the other; (right) a shrine to the saint at the Akka Mahadevi Caves in Srisailam.
Afervent devotee of Lord Siva, Akka Mahadevi was a poet-saint in the Virasaiva tradition, a Saivite Hindu religious movement that became popular in 12th-century South India. The prefix Akka is an honorific meaning “elder sister,” which Mahadevi earned as the archetypal sister in the Kannada-language bhakti tradition.
Kannada is a Dravidian language largely spoken in Karnataka, and globally in the Indian diaspora. It has a long and rich literary tradition, to which Akka Mahadevi contributed immensely, composing hundreds of poems (300 still known) as offerings to God. Each poem in this genre is known as a vachana, meaning “saying” or “utterance.” The form is free-verse lyrics, usually produced as couplets in six to twelve lines. Vachanas carry a rhythmic structure not through sound, as is the case in most poetry, but through semantics and sentence patterns. Vachanas are so profound and experientially rich that they are revered as Kannada-language Upanishads. Two short compositions by Mahadevi, Mantragopya and Yogangatrividhi, are considered her finest contributions. Her spiritual brothers in the famed assembly of Kannada poets were Dasimayya, Basavanna and Allama Prabhu.
Akka Mahadevi’s vachanas are “highly personal, highly poetical, imaginative expressions of mystical experiences and spiritual insights, in which mystical bridal imagery abounds,” says Dutch-Canadian scholar Robert Zydenbos. As present-day seekers, we meet Mahadevi Akka through her vachanas, in which she demonstrates the various sthalas, or stages of spiritual development, and exemplifies three forms of love commonly found in Sanskrit poetry: love forbidden, love in separation, and love in union. A strong bhakta and leader of the Virasaiva movement in her time, Akka Mahadevi is a feminist icon for social activism even today.
Mahadevi’s Legendary Life
Mahadevi was born in Udutadi village, around 1130, in the Shimoga district of Karnataka. Initiated into Saivite tradition at age ten, she thereafter considered herself to be truly born. As she grew into a beautiful maiden, some thought of her as Rudrakannike, a Goddess born on Earth with a spiritual purpose. Even as a child, Mahadevi was captivated by Lord Siva as Chennamallikarjuna, “beautiful Lord, as white as jasmine,” the main Deity in her village temple. The name Chennamallikarjuna appears in all of her poems, both as a signature (ankita) and an invocation of Siva.
Like Andal in South India and Mirabai in the North, Mahadevi considered none other than the Lord Himself as her life partner. One day a king named Kaushika saw Mahadevi and fell in love with her. When he approached her parents to request her hand in marriage, Mahadevi protested. Not only was he no comparison to Chennamallikarjuna, but he didn’t even believe in the existence of God. By the prevailing account, as fate would have it, Kaushika persuaded Mahadevi’s parents and took the maiden as his bride. Chandra Mudaliar writes that one of her poems includes three conditions for her marriage, including that she be free to spend her time in devotion, or in conversation with other saints (Religious Experiences of Hindu Women: A Study of Akka Mahadevi). By other accounts, she never married Kaushika, or they did marry but never actually lived together.
Kaushika was a materialistic man who gave prime importance to sense pleasures, while Mahadevi had transcended worldly existence and was fully absorbed in her devotion to the Lovely Lord White as Jasmine. Not surprisingly, Akka Mahadevi’s vachanas address these conflicts and portray her yearning for her beloved and only legitimate husband, Chennamallikarjuna.
Over time, Kaushika exerted his will on her so strongly that she decided to preserve her dignity by leaving him for good. Legend tells us that she abandoned her birthplace, parents, and even clothing, as the ultimate act of social defiance. She became a wandering renunciate, covered only in her tresses, searching for Chennamallikarjuna and the company of His devotees.
She ultimately reached Kalyana in northern Karnataka, the epicenter of Virasaiva bhakti, where she met poet-saints Allama Prabhu and Basavanna. That is when the famous conversation between Allama and Mahadevi took place, a guru-disciple dialogue of sorts, during which Allama asked her about the identity of her husband, to which she replied that she was married forever to Chennamallikarjuna. He then asked her the obvious question (from Speaking of Siva, A.K. Ramanujan): “Why take off clothes, as if by that gesture you could peel off illusions? And yet robe yourself in tresses of hair? If so free and pure in heart, why replace a sari with a covering of tresses?’ Her reply is boldly honest: “Till the fruit is ripe inside, the skin will not fall off. I’d a feeling it would hurt you if I displayed the body’s seals of love. O brother, don’t tease me needlessly. I’m given entire into the hands of my lord white as jasmine.” Her answer was so profound that she was thereafter accepted into the company of the Virasaiva saints.
Akka Mahadevi spent time in the town of Kalyana at the Anubhava Mantapa, a famed Virasaiva forum for spiritual discussion, then continued her wild, God-intoxicated pilgrimage. She eventually reached the holy Srisailam mountains, in present-day Andhra Pradesh, where she found Lord Mallikarjuna and became lost in Him. She was hardly in her twenties when she walked into the Kadali forests and gave up her body into oneness with Siva.
A vachana attributed to Akka Mahadevi suggests that towards the end of her life, King Kaushika visited her in the forest and sought her forgiveness.
LEARN MORE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Enjoy Speaking of Siva, by A.K. Ramanujan
Read Mahadeviyakka, Oxford Bibliographies by Robert Zydenbos
Read “Akka Mahadevi in Hinduism and Tribal Religions,” Encyclopedia of Indian Religions by Sushumna Kannan
Visit the Akka Mahadevi Caves in Srisailam, Andhra Pradesh, India
Basavanna: Karnataka, 1106–116
In the palm of his hand: In the radiance of Siva’s light-filled grace, Basavanna is blessed to receive the small Sivalingam from Nandi; (right) the Sri Basaveshwara Temple, built by the ruler of Chalukya dynasty in the 11th century to honor the saint.
Basava means “bull” in Kannada. The name well suits this reformer, political activist, philosopher and poet-saint who embodied the spirit of Siva’s divine bull, Nandi, as he boldly spread social awareness through his powerful vachana verses. A 12th-century saint from Manigavalli, Basavanna (the suffix anna means “elder brother”) lived in Karnataka during the reign of the Kalachuri king Bijjala I. Learned in the traditional Sanskrit classics, an ardent Saivite, he devoted his life to serving the Lord.
Basavanna lost his parents in childhood and grew up under the care of a grandmother and foster-parents, Madiraja and Madambike, a brahmin couple of Bagevadi village. Early in life, he rebelled against the strictures of caste, orthodoxy and ritual, renouncing it all by the age of 16 when he decided to spend his life worshiping and serving Siva. His 15th-century poet-biographer, Harihara, wrote, “‘Love of Siva cannot live with ritual.’ So saying, he tore off his sacred thread which bound him like a past-life’s deeds…and left the shade of his home, disregarded wealth and propriety, thought nothing of relatives. Asking no one in town, he left Bagevadi, raging for the Lord’s love, eastwards… and entered Kappadisangama, where three rivers meet’’ (from Speaking of Siva, by A.K. Ramanujan). There, Basavanna sang to and about his chosen form of God, Siva as Kudalasangamadeva, Lord of the Meeting Rivers. This name appears as a signature in all of Basavanna’s poetry.
In Kudalasangama, Basavanna met his guru, Ishanya Guru, a Saivite brahmin of the Kalamukha sect, and spent several years studying with him. One night, as legend has it, Basavanna had a dream-vision in which Lord Siva directed him to leave Kudalasangama and go to Mangajavada, where King Bijjala I reigned. In the dream Basavanna protested. Soon thereafter a small Sivalinga manifested for him in the mouth of the temple Nandi. Reassured of Siva’s intent by this miraculous omen, Basavanna set out for Mangajavada. He visited Kalyana, where he married his cousin Gangambike and her close friend Nilambike. Gangambike was the daughter of his uncle Baladeva, a minister of King Bijjala I. Basavanna soon became the king’s trusted friend; and when Baladeva died, the king made Basavanna his new finance minister.
In Mangajavada, Basavanna eagerly began implementing the social ideals instilled in him by Ishanya Guru, spreading the message of a new, visionary religious society. He utilized state funds to undertake social reforms, and also to serve and empower wandering Virasaiva ascetics, or jangamas. At age 48 he moved with King Bijjala to Kalyana, where, joined by Allama Prabhu, his fame continued to grow for the next fourteen years.
In Kalyana, Basavana set up innovative public institutions such as the Anubhava Mantapa, where male and female devotees from all socio-economic backgrounds were welcomed to discuss spirituality, as well as economic and social issues. Many Virasaiva saints gathered in this famed “Hall of Experience,” including Allama Prabhu and Mahadevi Akka. All of this led to a renaissance of Siva worship, and gave rise to a new form of Virasaivism called Lingayatism. Here Basavanna lived and preached for twenty years, developing a large Saivite movement. “A new community with egalitarian ideals disregarding caste, class and sex grew in Kalyana, challenging orthodoxy, rejecting social convention and religious ritual. A political crisis was at hand” (Speaking of Siva).
Eventually, the king, persuaded by gossip about his minister, moved to curb the rise of the movement. Traditionalists in the caste-oriented larger society were outraged when, in 1167, a wedding took place between two devotees of different castes (brahmin and shudra), though both had renounced caste in joining the casteless Virasaiva community. King Bijjala sentenced the fathers of the bride and bridegroom to death. “Meanwhile, extremist youths were out for revenge; they stabbed Bijjala and assassinated him. In the riots and persecution that followed, Virasaivas were scattered in all directions. But in the brief period, probably the span of one generation, Basavanna had helped create a new community.” (Speaking of Siva). Basavanna, who was committed to nonviolence but unable to restrain the extremists, left Kalyana and returned to Kudalasangama, where he became one with the Divine soon thereafter at the age of 62.
Basavanna wanted to inspire all people—both the lettered and unlettered, regardless of caste, class or gender—with his teachings on the path to Siva. His teachings were embodied in simple vachana verses, written in praise of Lord Siva in the common Kannada language. In his verses he repudiated social discrimination, superstitions, rituals and traditions, such as wearing the sacred thread. Rejecting temple rites led by brahmins, he advocated personal, direct worship of Siva, introducing the Ishtalinga necklace encasing a Sivalinga to serve as a reminder of one’s devotion to Siva and the Lord’s constant presence. Lingayat devotees faithfully perform puja to their personal Lingam every day while holding it in the palm of the left hand. Basavanna suggested treating one’s own body and soul as a temple of Siva. His verses, such as “Kayakave Kailasa” (referring to “work is worship”), remain enormously popular. As a key figure, Basavanna contributed greatly to Virasaiva devotional history, religion and contemporary politics. Several statues of the saint have been erected; the most prominent, at Basavakalyana (formerly Kalyana; renamed after the saint), is 108 feet tall.
Did you know?
Virasaivites, “ardent Siva worshipers,” consider Kudalasangama a key pilgrimage site. Poet-saint Basavanna’s Aikya Mantapa (holy samadhi) as well as the Swayambhu (self-manifested) Lingam can be found here.
LEARN MORE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Read Speaking of Siva by A.K. Ramanujan
Visit Kudalasangama, Karnataka, India
Kanakadasa: Karnataka, 1509–1609
Hymns to Him: With the Tirupati Temple behind, Kanakadasa sings to Adikeshava, his chosen form of Lord Vishnu; (right) the Udupi Sri Krishna Temple.
One of India’s famous bhaktas was the 16-century poet-saint Kanakadasa. He is known as a Haridasa, part of a devotional movement that originated in Karnataka and spread the teachings of Madhvacharya in that state and eastward into Bengal and Assam over a span of nearly six centuries. History counts ten or more Haridasa saints and mystics who helped shape the culture, philosophy and art of South India. Kanakadasa composed numerous works in easily understandable Kannada that are treasured in the Carnatic music tradition. He is best known for his characteristically bold kirtanas.
Named Thimmappa Nayaka at birth, he was the son of Biregowda and Beechamma of Bada village in Karnataka’s Haveri district. Exemplary and well educated, Thimma became the village chieftain. Based on one of his compositions, it is interpreted that after he was severely injured in a war and miraculously saved, he renounced his warrior profession and devoted his life to composing music and literature to explain philosophy in the language of ordinary people. He became a devotee of Lord Krishna, worshiping the Lord as Adikeshava at a small shrine near his home. Surrendering his princely life, he moved to nearby Kaginele village. In time, he became a follower of the great Dvaita philosopher Vyasatirtha from the Madhva order of Udupi.
Vyasatirtha was the patron saint of the Vijayanagara empire and guru of the ruler, Krishna Deva Raya. He is famous for composing the popular Carnatic song “Krishna Ni Begane Baaro” in Yamuna Kalyani raga, which is still performed by classical musicians. It was Vyasatirtha who gave Thimmappa Nayaka the name Kanakadasa.
Udupi was one of the epicenters of Vaishnavism. One time when visiting his teacher, Kanakadasa went to the Udupi Sri Krishna temple for worship. Despite Vyasatirtha’s requests, he was not allowed entrance, as he belonged to a lower caste. With determined devotion, Kanakadasa sat outside fervently singing poems in praise of Lord Krishna. Suddenly, the outer wall of the temple cracked open and the installed murti of Krishna turned westward to face Kanakadasa—such that Kanakadasa could have darshan of the Lord! Stunned and overwhelmed, Kanakadasa offered heartfelt prayers to the Lord. To this day, there is a small window called Kanakana Kindi through which devotees come to get a glimpse of Lord Krishna, like Kanakadasa did, before entering the temple. This popular legend gets retold to attest that all people are equal in the eyes of God, and what counts most is the devotee’s faith, surrender and purity of heart.
Vyasatirtha once questioned his students, asking who among those present could attain liberation. Kanakadasa responded in clever wording that none of them could do so. His fellow scholars were inflamed by his apparent arrogance, taking his words to mean that only he would be liberated—none other, not even his teacher! Vyasatirtha, however, understood Kanakadasa’s intent. The phrase he used loosely translates to “I will go (to heaven) if my-self (selfishness) goes (away).” This contains a deep Vedantic truth: only one who has lost the “I” (ego) can attain liberation.
Kanakadasa composed many poems with powerful social messages, promoting the cause of equality for all. Today, musicians have access to around 240 of his songs (Kirtane, Ugabhogas, padas and mundiges), in addition to his major works, such as Haribhaktisara (core of Krishna devotion), Narisimhastava (compositions in praise of Lord Narasimha), and Ramadhanyacharite (story of ragi millet). Kanakadasa’s songs stress cultivating good moral values and devotion to the Supreme. His signature (ankita), appearing in the last verse of every composition, is Adikeshava, a remembrance and dedication to his favorite form of Vishnu.
Kanakadasa is believed to have spent his final days in Tirupati, the famed abode of Lord Venkateshwara. In current times, Kanakadasa Jayanti, his birth anniversary, is honored as an official state holiday and is grandly celebrated by thousands in Bada village. A Sri Krishna temple there enshrines a murti of his family Deity, Adikeshava of Kaginele, as well as a bronze of Kanakadasa. The Karnataka state government has created a magnificent Vijayanagara-style fort near Bada with a life-sized golden-colored statue of Kanakadasa as a warrior on horseback. Inside the fort is a majestic palace with a gigantic statue of the saint, as well as beautiful paintings and sculptures depicting episodes from his life and times.
Kanakadasa and the other Haridasas, including his famous contemporary Purandara Dasa, are a major influence on Kannada Vaishnava devotional literature to this day. Their unified voice powerfully promulgated the dvaita philosophy of Madhvacharya. Their philosophical, intuitive and experiential approach to the Divine was influenced by Virasaiva poet-saints of the region, such as Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi and Allama Prabhu, as well as by the Tamil Alvars.
Testimony from a Devotee
“I’ve enjoyed singing his kritis at the Maryland Shiva Vishnu Temple’s annual Haridasa Aradhana festival celebrating all the saints in the Haridasa movement. In Kanakadasa’s compositions, he tries to change people’s attitudes such that they treat everyone equally.”
JAYA BALA, CARNATIC VOCALIST & INSTRUCTOR, SAN JOSE, USA
LEARN MORE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Watch “Bhakta Kanakadasa” film (1960)
Visit Udupi Sri Krishna Temple and Kanakana Kindi (Kanaka’s Window)
Read Mystic Tradition in Religion and Art in Karnataka, by M.V. Krishna Rao
Poonthanam: Kerala, 1547–1640
Krishna’s songster: With the Guruvayur Temple behind Him, young Krishna listens as Poonthanam offers his poetic praises; (right) the Guruvayur Krishna Temple, famed for its annual elephant parade.
A sacred place is made famous by saintly people who have resided in and propitiated the Deity of that region through their sadhanas and devotional works. Their spiritual example travels far and wide. Guruvayur, the town of the Deity Guruvayurappan, is such a holy place. It is a famous pilgrimage center in Kerala’s Thrissur district, drawing thousands of devotees and revered as Bhuloka Vaikuntha (Lord Vishnu’s earthly abode). Among the many noble souls associated with Guruvayur Temple, where Lord Krishna is worshiped as a little boy, is poet-saint Poonthanam of the 16th century.
Poonthanam was a devotee of Lord Guruvayurappan from childhood. Marrying at age 20, he and his wife were childless for a long time. They sought the grace of Lord Guruvayurappan by reciting “Santhana Gopalam” (a series of mantras traditionally chanted 108 times for 108 consecutive days, while visualizing the baby Krishna). In time a son was born to them in 1586. The overjoyed couple arranged for a grand celebration and invited everyone they knew. But alas, the child tragically died an hour before the ceremony. Shocked and filled with sorrow, Poonthanam sought refuge at Guruvayur Temple. According to legend, he was consoled by Lord Guruvayurappan, who lay in his lap for a moment as baby Krishna. Poonthanam writes in his magnum opus, Jnanappana, “When the divine child Krishna dances in our hearts, is there any need to have little ones of our own?” Thereafter Poonthanam thought of Guruvayurappan as his own child and spent his days in the temple expounding the Lord’s glories.
Bhakti or Vibhakti: Devotion or Scholarship?
One day, Poonthanam went to meet the respected Narayana Bhattathiri, a celebrated devotee of Lord Guruvayurappan. Bhattathiri was a prolific Sanskrit scholar and author of Narayaniyam, a condensed version of Bhagavata Purana. Poonthanam took with him some of his own devotional poetry, written in Malayalam, with the hope that the scholar would read and comment on it. Seeing that the work was in the local dialect and not in Sanskrit, Bhattathiri trivialized Poonthanam’s request and refused to read the proffered poems. Poonthanam left with a heavy heart. In those times, Malayalam was considered inferior to Sanskrit.
That night, Lord Guruvayurappan, touched by Poonthanam’s humility and devotion, appeared in Narayana Bhattathiri’s dreams and declared, “I prefer Poonthanam’s genuine bhakti to your vibhakti (alluding to scholarship).” The next morning, Bhattathiri, chagrined by his pompous blunder, rushed to Poonthanam and sought his forgiveness.
The Jnanappana, “Song of Divine Wisdom”
Employing simple Malayalam, Poonthanam composed many works in praise of Lord Guruvayurappan, such as the Sri Krishna Karnamrtam, Santanagopalam Pana and Anandakarnamritam. Of all his works, his 360-line Jnanappana is considered his masterpiece. Jnana means wisdom, and pāna refers to a style of folk poem or song meter typical of Malayalam poetry. It is admired for its poetic finesse in expressing deep philosophical and devotional messages, while being linguistically accessible to all. Jnanappana is revered as the Bhagavad Gita of Malayalam. It’s said it was composed with the help of Lord Krishna Himself, to embody the essence of the Bhagavatam, the Vedas and the Puranas.
Through his poems, Poonthanam provides ways to make the transient human life meaningful, by elucidating metaphysical truths about the soul’s nature and existence. He encourages all to strive towards liberation (mukti), and points out that bhakti is the easiest way to attain union with God in the Kali Yuga.
The Power of Namasmaranam
Glorifying the names of God is a common practice in many world religions, including Sanatana Dharma. Poonthanam emphasized the power of Namasmaranam (remembrance and repetition of God’s names) throughout his works, as did countless other saints and mystics in the Hindu tradition, from Draupadi and Prahlada, to Mirabai and Thyagaraja. In the Jnanappana, the following verse comprising names of Lord Krishna appears repeatedly. It is traditionally sung as a refrain after every verse in the composition.
Krishna Krishna Mukunda Janardana
Krishna Govinda Narayana Hare
Achyutananda Govinda Madhava
Satchidananda Narayana Hare
Why constantly chant, sing or remember the Lord’s Name? Sage Vyasa affirmed that in the Kali Yuga it is easy to reach God through chanting the Lord’s names. In the 28th verse of Jnanappana, Poonthanam declares that no effort can lead to liberation other than chanting of the divine names Krishna, Mukunda, Janardana, Govinda, Rama, etc. It is believed that in 1640 Lord Guruvayurappan came down to Earth and took Poonthanam to His heavenly abode, Vaikuntha. In contemporary times, devotees celebrate the poet-saint’s life annually at the Guruvayur Sri Krishna Temple on “Poonthanam Day” by reciting his devotional works. During March of each year, a week-long literary festival is held in Poonthanam Illam, the poet-saint’s home.
Testimony from a Devotee
“Poonthanam’s story is very famous in Kerala. His verses are quoted by parents to children. Jnanappana teaches us that God is always within, and God will give what is best for us. We live with that faith.”
RAJI KRISHNAN, 92, CARNATIC VOCALIST & VIOLINIST, COIMBATORE
LEARN MORE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Visit Guruvayur Sri Krishna Temple and Poonthanam Illam in Kerala, India
Read Jnanappana, commentary by Savitri Puram (online)
Listen to “Jnanappana” (Poonthanam’s magnum opus) on YouTube